Calcium-phosphate complex increased during subchondral bone remodeling…
Youn-Kwan Jung, Min-Su Han, Hye-Ri Park, Eun-Ju Lee, Ji-Ae Jang, Gun-Woo Kim, Sun-Young Lee, DaeWon Moon & Seungwoo Han
An activation of osteoclasts and subchondral bone remodeling is a major histologic feature of early-stage osteoarthritis (OA), which can be accompanied by an increase of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (Pi) level in the subchondral milieu. Considering articular cartilage gets most of nutrition from subchondral bone by diffusion, these micro-environmental changes in subchondral bone can affect the physiology of articular chondrocytes. Here, we have shown that Ca is increased and co-localized with Pi in articular cartilage of early-stage OA. The Ca-Pi complex increased the production of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the hypertrophic chondrocytes, which was dependent on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. The Ca-Pi complexes increased the expression of endocytosis markers, and the inhibition of the formation of the Ca-Pi complex ameliorated the Ca-Pi complex-mediated increases of MMPs expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our data provide insight regarding the Ca-Pi complex as a potential catabolic mediator in the subchondral milieu and support the pathogenic role of subchondral bone in the early stages of cartilage degeneration..